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What is the image sensor in a digital camera?

Update: 2019-10-12 17:07 Source: LUFTMY

The size of digital camera image sensor is one of the most important specifications to determine the overall performance. Even the simplest machine vision and imaging devices have these sensors. So what is an image sensor?

What makes a digital camera a camera? Image sensor is the most important part.

An image sensor is a device that allows a camera to convert photons (that is, light) into electrical signals that can be received by the device. The first batch of digital cameras used charge coupled devices, which facilitated the movement of charges through the devices, so they could be modulated.

Deeply Understanding the Internal Working Principle of Image Sensors

The bigger the sensor, the better the image, but how does it work?

Today, most digital cameras use standard configurations: 2D Bayer arrays of RGB color filters are located at the top of the pixel array. Each pixel has a photodetector and absorbs filtered light from one of the primary colors. In addition to RGB, there are special or traditional filter arrangements, such as CYGM.

After the light hits the photodiode in the image sensor, the "picture" is converted to an electrical signal, which is then pushed into a number of internal devices: serial shift registers, capacitors and amplifiers. Finally, analog-to-digital conversion is performed. This converts the voltage signal into binary values that can be processed and stored.

Despite the variety of image sensors, CMOS sensors have attracted the imagination of today's visual system engineers. CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor - allows data to be read individually for each pixel. This provides the most complex and fine-grained control of the image. These image sensors still work well in very small sizes, so they appear in portable cameras, smartphones and many other portable applications.

There are several specialized image sensors, but until recently, most were variations on CMOS. Now, innovative technologies such as backlit sensors are beginning to emerge. These enhance the performance of the image sensor by increasing the amount of light that can be captured.

Many components play a role in the way an imaging system works, but the image sensor is perhaps the most important. As sensors become more accurate every day, consumer and industrial imaging quality standards have never been higher.

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